Asymptomatic bacteria (ASB)
Asymptomatic bacteriuria means that bacteria can be found in the urine, but there are no signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection. ASB should not be treated routinely since it is not proven to prevent CAUTI and antibiotic treatment can contribute to development of antimicrobial resistance and negatively influence the patient well-being and health. An exception is ASB during pregnancy.
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
UTI is an infection involving any part of the urinary system, including urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidney. Symptomatic urinary tract infections following treatment is defined as bacteriuria in combination with symptoms such as fever and pain.
Healthcare associated infections (HAI)
HAI are infections patients can get while receiving medical treatment.
Healthcare associated urinary tract infections
Almost all healthcare-associated UTIs are caused by instrumentation or catheterization of the urinary tract, but the risk for UTI is also increased by residual urine.
Catheter associated UTI (CAUTI)
CAUTI is defined as bacteriuria and/or funguria combined with and at least two infectious symptoms (such as fever or abdominal pain) for patients catheterized for >2 days and diagnosed within 2 days from the day of catheter removal. It is important to prevent CAUTI since it decreases the quality of life of the patient, leads to prolonged hospital stay, increased cost, increased use of antibiotics and mortality. It is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections.
If the bacteria or fungus that caused the urinary tract infections spread into the blood stream, the patient has developed urosepsis. This may lead to substantial morbidity and significant health economic implications.